In the early nineteenth century, colleges offered narrow training in the classics to prepare students for the ministry. This changed when reformers realized that public schooling could be an effective weapon against juvenile crime. Then, the demand for schools increased, and women began to fill the shortage.
Now, the question is: How did education change in the late 1800s? The answer may surprise you. Read on to learn about the changes in education during this time period.
Reformers viewed education as a key to individual opportunity.
The early American educational system was based on the family as a primary source of instruction. As families immigrated to the United States and found free land, extended families dispersed, breaking down traditional educational patterns. As a result, American society began to delegate more responsibility for education to schools.
Although education was primarily confined to the basics, such as reading and writing, it has evolved to include many other skills previously learned at home.
In the mid-1800s, education reformers shifted their emphasis from voluntary efforts to state action. While some reformers believed in the benefits of voluntary efforts to improve education, they ultimately gave way to coercion. In particular, schools that were not accountable for the political process were condemned as threats to society. However, the movement did not wane completely.
In addition to government involvement, reformers also saw education as a key to individual opportunity and sought to improve the school system’s status through legislation and other means.
As women began to demand more educational opportunities, the antebellum reform movement and the campaign for women’s rights were closely linked. Women had been denied equal educational opportunities, and their literacy level was half as high as men’s. Catharine Beecher, a leading feminist in this movement, was unhappy with her lack of access to education. She founded the Hartford Female Seminary, a school for women, in 1823 that provided a rigorous academic curriculum and an emphasis on women’s physical education. The women who graduated from Hartford Female Seminary grew up to become leading reformers in education and social justice today.
The early American education system was largely segregated. Racist practices prevented many black children from attending white schools. Many southern governments funded public education separately for white and black children. Residential segregation also led to segregated public schools. However, many schools provided education for black children. These schools also received funding from the black community. While there were some racial segregation laws, this did not seem to affect the quality of education.
Reformers believed that public schooling could be an effective weapon in the fight against juvenile crime.
In response to the George Floyd murder, Minneapolis suspended police officers and other law enforcement representatives from schools. Since then, 33 different cities and school districts have followed suit, suspending law enforcement representatives from schools. These communities include rural, suburban, and urban areas and school districts throughout the country. These studies show that schools with police are more likely to have students involved in criminal activity.
The use of police in public schools has become an increasingly controversial issue. The controversial use of police officers in schools has spurred national conversations about police reform. Public school police officers are often not adequately trained in dealing with youth. These children are more likely to be arrested at school than a generation ago and are the fastest route to jail. And while the police are necessary in maintaining order, it’s ineffective to punish juvenile offenders without criminal behavior.
In addition to law enforcement, reformers believed that public schooling could be an excellent weapon in the fight against juvenile crime. The federal government encourages communities to include youth in planning programs. For example, in Massachusetts, reformers changed the law to make school policing optional and required by district superintendents. Today, Connecticut and Oregon legislatures are considering similar legislation.
A Matter of Time and Adoteens at Risk: Two publications by the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development and the Carnegie Foundation highlight the importance of education in the fight against juvenile crime. Both are important in promoting the development of positive social skills and providing mentors and adult role models. Despite the recent increase in youth crime, the United States has not seen a decrease in violent juvenile offenders.
Women Responded to a Shortage of Good Teachers
In the early 19th century, men were almost exclusively the teachers in public schools, as women were considered best suited for the home. As the country’s population grew, gender roles changed, and the need for good teachers became even more pressing. Despite these challenges, women responded in large numbers to the call for teachers, earning 40 to 60 percent less than their male counterparts. The result was an increased demand for teachers in public schools, which increased female employment.
In the early nineteenth century, white men dominated the teaching profession, but as industrialization, immigration, and westward expansion disrupted the status quo, many women left the teaching profession to raise families and take on other jobs. The resulting demographic shift brought about a wave of social reform, as many progressives sought to address these problems. Social reformers, led by Horace Mann, sought to improve education in America by establishing free public schools. The goal was to improve the quality of education by educating students of all backgrounds while building shared moral values.
Demands for Schools Increased.
The late 1800s saw rapid growth in the United States, and new types of schools emerged. The country’s industrialization resulted in an increased number of workers and immigrants, particularly from the American South and southern Europe. During this time, labor unions regulated apprenticeships, limiting the number of children who could attend school. As a result, demands for schools increased during this time. A new generation of teachers emerged in the late 1800s, and a burgeoning middle class met the country’s demand for schooling.
By the end of the nineteenth century, around 55% of school-age children attended either primary or secondary schools. However, many families couldn’t afford to send their children to school or couldn’t spare the time. As a result, more private academies opened. Some academies provided classical education, and some even allowed girls to attend. After the 1860s, school demand increased, and schooling was made compulsory for boys and girls.
The demand for higher education also rose during this time. Before the Civil War, most colleges and universities were church-affiliated. Before the Civil War, 16 states provided financial support for higher education. In addition to public schools, New York City provided tuition-free education from elementary school to college. It was not until the 19th century that the United States Supreme Court overturned this policy. These policies were unjust, but they were necessary to meet the nation’s changing needs.
The Puritan leaders of the New England colonies and the late nineteenth century were motivated to create new educational institutions. In Massachusetts, they pushed the development of normal schools. Henry Barnard, Samuel Lewis, and Calvin Stowe played key roles in Connecticut and Rhode Island. In South Carolina, the state government hired a schoolmaster in 1635. The Boston Latin Grammar School was opened the following year. The opening of Harvard College followed this act.
Compulsory attendance laws were enacted to ensure that children from all classes received a basic, “common” education.
Compulsion was used to force children into government-run schools, but it wasn’t always so simple. In the late 1800s, more than two-thirds of children in the United States were enrolled in government schools. In 1918, a law known as the Oregon Amendment to Compulsory Education Act (OCAE) made it illegal for students to attend schools that were not government-run. The U.S. Supreme Court eventually overturned this law, but the reforms made it possible for more children than ever before to complete secondary education. Between 1900 and 1950, more than 80 percent of children aged five to nine were in school. Students spent longer hours in school, and fewer days were missed.
The law was not without controversy. In 1894, it was made mandatory for children of Aboriginal children to attend school, with fines and imprisonment for non-attendance. In Canada East, violent opposition to school reforms continued for years. The most infamous incidents occurred in the District of Trois-Rivieres, where schoolhouses were burned, records were destroyed, and local officials’ horses were attacked. As a result, widespread anti-school reform violence became known as the “Guerre des eteignoirs” (the “candle snuffers’ war”).
In 1840, Canada united under the United Province of Canada. The new government passed the School Act, making public schooling a priority in Lower Canada. It established district councils as the bodies of education. These districts were responsible for selecting textbooks, licensing teachers, and school rules and regulations. Another essential part of the act was the levy of school taxes. These new taxes were met with widespread opposition.